Research on bacteria, plants, insects and animals
(Please, note: this section is less complete than the previous ones)
Achkasova, Y. N., Pyatkin, K. D., Bryzgunova, N. I., Sarachan, T. A., & Tyshkevich, L. V. (1978). Very low frequency and small intensity electromagnetic and magnetic fields as an oecological factor. Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology, and Immunology, 22(4), 415-20.
Comment: The growth control/timing of bacteria and cells was based in changes in Earth's magnetic field.
Belyaev, I. Y., Shcheglov, V. S., Alipov, Y. D., & Polunin, V. A. (1996). Resonance effect of millimeter waves in the power range from 10(-19) to 3 x 10(-3) W/cm² on Escherichia coli cells at different concentrations. Bioelectromagnetics, 17(4), 312-21.
Comment: Very small radiation power density values (0.0000000000001 µW/cm² = 0,000000001 µW/m²) had an effect on coli bacteria response.
Brumelis, G., Balodis, V., & Balode, Z. (1996). Radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. The Skrunda Radio Location Station case. Science of The Total Environment, 180(1), 49-50. doi: 10.1016/0048-9697(95)04913-4.
Comment: Radar exposure between 0.0027 - 0.065 µW/cm² = 27 - 650 µW/m² caused changes in growth in trees.
Grundler, W., Kaiser, F., Keilmann, F., & Walleczek, J. (1992). Mechanisms of electromagnetic interaction with cellular systems. Die Naturwissenschaften, 79(12), 551-9.
Comment: 0.000005 µW/cm² = 0,05 µW/m² affected yeast growth.
Daniells, C., Duce, I., Thomas, D., Sewell, P., Tattersall, J., & de Pomerai, D. (1998). Transgenic nematodes as biomonitors of microwave-induced stress. Mutation Research, 399(1), 55-64.
"Transgenic nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans strain PC72), carrying a stress-inducible reporter gene (Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase) under the control of a C. elegans hsp16 heat-shock promoter, have been used to monitor toxicant responses both in water and soil. ...Experiments in which the frequency and/or power settings were varied suggested a greater response at 21 than at 27 dBm, both at 750 and 300 MHz, although extremely variable responses were observed at 24 dBm and 750 MHz. Thus, lower power levels tended, if anything, to induce larger responses (with the above-mentioned exception), which is opposite to the trend anticipated for any simple heating effect. These results are reproducible and data acquisition is both rapid and simple. The evidence accrued to date suggests that microwave radiation causes measurable stress to transgenic nematodes, presumably reflecting increased levels of protein damage within cells (the common signal thought to trigger hsp gene induction)."
Comment: Lower radiation levels caused larger responses than higher power density levels. Protein damage.
Selga, T., & Selga, M. (1996). Response of Pinus sylvestris L. needles to electromagnetic fields. Cytological and ultrastructural aspects. Science of The Total Environment, 180(1), 65-73. doi: 10.1016/0048-9697(95)04921-5.
Comment: Pine needles were observed to show premature aging and stress reaction under microwave (radar) exposure.
Balmori, A. (2005) Possible Effects of Electromagnetic Fields from Phone Masts on a Population of White Stork (Ciconia ciconia).
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 2., 2005(24), 109-119.
"Monitoring of a white stork population in Valladolid (Spain) in the vicinity of Cellular Phone Base Stations was carried out, with the objective of detecting possible effects. The total productivity, in the nests located within 200 meters of antennae, was 0_86 ± 0_16. ... These results are compatible with the possibility that microwaves are interfering with the reproduction of white storks and would corroborate the results of laboratory research by other authors."
Comment: The amount of birds close to the base station had decreased. The nesting was unsuccessful and embryos were deformed/dead.
Haggerty, K. (2010). Adverse Influence of Radio Frequency Background on Trembling Aspen Seedlings: Preliminary Observations. International Journal of Forestry Research, Volume 2010, Article ID 836278, 7 pages.
"Numerous incidents of aspen decline have been recorded in North America over the past half century, and incidents of very rapid mortality of aspen clones have been observed in Colorado since 2004. The radio frequency (RF) environment of the earth has undergone major changes in the past two centuries due to the development and use of electricity in power and communications applications, and the anthropogenic RF background continues to increase in intensity and complexity. This study suggests that the RF background may have strong adverse effects on growth rate and fall anthocyanin production in aspen, and may be an underlying factor in aspen decline."
Comment: See also Selga & Selga (1996) and Brumelis et al. (1996))
Korall, H., Leucht, T., & Martin, H. (1988). Bursts of magnetic fields induce jumps of misdirection in bees by a mechanism of magnetic resonance. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology, 162(3), 279284. doi: 10.1007/BF00606116.
"Magnetic field (MF) bursts at a frequency of 250 Hz oriented parallel to the fieldlines of the EMF induce unequivocal "jumps" of misdirection of up to +10°."
Comment: Artificial magnetic fields bursts caused changes in bees′ orientation ability.
Magras, I. N., & Xenos, T. D. (1997). RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice. Bioelectromagnetics, 18(6), 455-461. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-186X(1997)18:6<455::AID-BEM8>3.0.CO;2-1.
"This study consisted of RF level measurements and in vivo experiments at several places around an antenna park. At these locations RF power densities between 168 nW/cm² and 1053 nW/cm² were measured. Twelve pairs of mice, divided in two groups, were placed in locations of different power densities and were repeatedly mated five times. One hundred eighteen newborns were collected. They were measured, weighed, and examined macro- and microscopically. A progressive decrease in the number of newborns per dam was observed, which ended in irreversible infertility. ...It should be noted here that the male experimental animals progressively developed a very bad physiological condition (rough hair, emaciation, etc.) ...Therefore, despite of the limited amount of data, the duration of the exposure to low intensity RF electromagnetic fields seems to be a repression parameter. In fact, chronic or long-term exposure to low intensity electromagnetic fields is generally associated with adverse results [Lary et al. 1983. The most peculiar findings of this study were the increases in the crown-rump length, the body weight, and the number of the posterior vertebrae (lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal) of the experimental off-springs compared with the controls."
Comment: Research was done in a real environment, not in a laboratory, close to several transmitters in a mountain in Greece. Radiation power density values were between 1680 µW/m²-10.530 µW/m². Since there were several transmitters, these values are difficult to interpret. After five generations of irradiation, mice became totally infertile.
Sharma, V.P. & Kumar, N.R. (2010). Changes in honeybee behaviour and biology under the influence of cellphone radiations", Current Science,
Vol. 98, No. 10, 1376-1378.
"We have compared the performance of honeybees in cellphone radiation exposed and unexposed colonies. A significant (p < 0.05) decline in colony strength and in the egg laying rate of the queen was observed. The behaviour of exposed foragers was negatively influenced by the exposure, there was neither honey nor pollen in the colony at the end of the experiment." http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/25may2010/1376.pdf
Comment: Consistent findings with bees. The cell phone was place next to the hive.
Universität Koblenz-Landau: Several studies about bees and electro-magnetic fields:
Comment: Experiments with DECT-basestations and bees. When a constantly transmitting DECT-base station was put next to a hive, many bees could not return back to hive. Additionally, bees behaved aggressively. Several research papers.
Roux, D., et al. (2007). High Frequency (900 MHz) low amplitude (5 V m1) electromagnetic Field: a genuine environmental stimulus that affects transcription, translation, calcium and energy charge in tomato. Planta. 227(4):88391.
"Within minutes of electromagnetic stimulation, stress related mRNA (calmodulin, calciumdependent protein kinase and proteinase inhibitor) accumulated in a rapid, large and 3 phase manner typical of an environmental stress response."
Comment: How GSM-exposure affects a plant, in this case a tomato. The effects were visible in protein changes and as a stress reaction.
Stärk, K. D., Krebs, T., Altpeter, E., Manz, B., Griot, C., & Abelin, T. (1997). Absence of chronic effect of exposure to short-wave radio broadcast signal on salivary melatonin concentrations in dairy cattle. Journal of Pineal Research, 22(4), 171-6.
"However, on the first night of re-exposure after the transmitter had been off for three days, the difference in salivary melatonin concentration between the two farms (3.89 pg/ml, CI: 2.04, 7.41) was statistically significant, indicating a two- to seven-fold increase of melatonin concentration. Thus, a delayed acute effect of EMF on melatonin concentration cannot completely be excluded."
Warnke, U. (2008): Electronic Smog Disrupts Nature on Massive Scales. Professor Ulrich Warnke's journal papers summarised in English: http://www.scribd.com/doc/15626453/Bees-Birds-Mankind-Destroying-Nature-by-Electrosmog-Ulrich-Warnke
A comprehensive collection of research papers (birds, animals, plants):