Research on Radio- and TV-Transmitters + Radars
Epidemiological studies of radio and TV transmitters:
Dolk, H., Shaddick, G., Walls, P., Grundy, C., Thakrar, B., Kleinschmidt, I., et al. (1997). Cancer Incidence near Radio and Television Transmitters in Great Britain I. Sutton Coldfield Transmitter. Americal Journal of Epidemiology, 145(1), 1-9.
"The risk of adult leukemia within 2 km was 1.83 (95% confidence interval 1.22-2.74), and there was a significant decline in risk with distance from the transmitter (p = 0.001). These findings appeared to be consistent over the periods 1974-1980 and 1981-1986, and were probably largely independent of the initially reported cluster, which appeared to concern mainly a later period. In the context of variability of leukemia risk across census wards in the West Midlands as a whole, the Sutton Coldfield findings were unusual."
Dolk, H., Elliott, P., Shaddick, G., Walls, P., & Thakrar, B. (1997). Cancer Incidence near Radio and Television Transmitters in Great Britain II. All High Power Transmitters. Am. J. Epidemiol., 145(1), 10-17.
"A decline in risk of adult leukemia was found for all transmitters combined (p = 0.05), two of the transmitter groups, and three of the single transmitters; for all transmitters combined, observed excess risk was no more than 15% at any distance up to 10 km, and there was no observed excess within 2 km of transmitters (O/E ratio = 0.97, 95% Cl 0.78-1.21). For childhood leukemia and brain cancer, and adult skin melanoma and bladder cancer, results were not indicative of a decline in risk with distance from transmitters. The magnitude and pattern of risk found in the Sutton Coldfield study did not appear to be replicated. The authors conclude that the results at most give no more than very weak support to the Sutton Coldfield findings. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145:10-17."
Ha, M., Im, H., Lee, M., Kim, H. J., Kim, B., Gimm, Y., et al. (2007). Radio-frequency radiation exposure from AM radio transmitters and childhood leukemia and brain cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(3), 270-9.
"The odds ratio for all types of leukemia was 2.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 4.67) among children who resided within 2 km of the nearest AM radio transmitter as compared with those resided more than 20 km from it. For total RFR exposure from all transmitters, odds ratios for lymphocytic leukemia were 1.39 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.86) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.11) for children in the second and third quartiles, respectively, versus the lowest quartile. Brain cancer and infantile cancer were not associated with AM RFR."
Hocking, B., & Gordon, I. (2003). Decreased survival for childhood leukemia in proximity to television towers. Archives of Environmental Health, 58(9), 560-4.
"Following adjustment, the mortality rate ratio that the authors used to compare the inner ring with the outer ring was 2.1 (95% confidence interval = 1.1, 4.0). There was an association between residential proximity to the television towers and decreased survival among cases of childhood leukemia in North Sydney, Australia."
Maskarinec G, Cooper J, Swygert L. (1994) Investigation of increased incidence in childhood leukemia near radio towers in Hawaii: preliminary observations. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol (1994) 13:33-7.
"The odds ratio (OR) for having lived within 2.6 miles of the radio towers before diagnosis was 2.0 (95% CI 0.06 to 8.3). The clustering may have been a chance event, but because of its peculiar characteristics, we feel it should be noted."
Merzenich, H., Schmiedel, S., Bennack, S., Bruggemeyer, H., Philipp, J., Blettner, M., et al. (2008). Childhood Leukemia in Relation to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in the Vicinity of TV and Radio Broadcast Transmitters. Am. J. Epidemiol., 168(10), 1169-1178. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwn230.
"An analysis of amplitude-modulated and frequency-modulated transmitters separately did not show increased risks of leukemia. The odds ratio for all types of leukemia was 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 1.67) among children living within 2 km of the nearest broadcast transmitter compared with those living at a distance of 10-<15 km. The data did not show any elevated risks of childhood leukemia associated with RF-EMFs."
Michelozzi, P., Capon, A., Kirchmayer, U., Forastiere, F., Biggeri, A., Barca, A., et al. (2002). Adult and childhood leukemia near a high-power radio station in Rome, Italy. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155(12), 1096-103. doi: 12048223.
"The risk of childhood leukemia was higher than expected for the distance up to 6 km from the radio station (standardized incidence rate = 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 4.1), and there was a significant decline in risk with increasing distance both for male mortality (p = 0.03) and for childhood leukemia (p = 0.036)."
Comment: 2.2-fold childhood leukemia risk. Additionally, increased male mortality.
Morton, W. & Phillips, D. (1983). Radioemission Density and Cancer Epidemiology in the Portland Metropolitan Area, Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, June 1983.
"A significant association between extremely low levels of RF/MW radiation possibly from TV towers and lymphatic leukemia, adenocarcinoma of the uterus and breast cancer among Portland, OR, residents."
Comment: Based on those findings, the Multnomah County, OR, extended its moratorium on new broadcast transmitters and adopted its own RF/MW standard.
Park, S., Ha, M. & Im, H-J. (2004). Ecological study on residences in the vicinity of AM radio broadcasting towers and cancer death: preliminary observations in Korea. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 77(6):387-394, 2004.
"All cancers-mortality was significantly higher in the exposed areas [direct standardized mortality rate ratio (MRR) =1.29, 95%CI=1.12-1.49]. When grouped by each exposed area and by electrical power, MRRs for two sites of 100 kW, one site of 250 kW and one site of 500 kW, for all subjects, and for one site of 100 kW and two sites of 250 kW, for male subjects, showed statistically significant increases without increasing trends according to the groups of electric power. Leukemia mortality was higher in exposed areas (MRR=1.70, 95% CI=0.84-3.45), especially among young adults aged under 30 years (0-14 years age group, MRR=2.29, 95% CI=1.05-5.98; 15-29 age group, MRR=2.44, 95% CI=1.07-5.24)"
Epidemiological studies of radar:
Kolodynski, A. & Kolodynska, V. (1996). Motor and psychological functions of school children living in the area of the Skrunda Radio Location Station in Latvia. Sci Total Environ 180(1), 87-93.
"This paper presents the results of experiments on school children living in the area of the Skrunda Radio Location Station (RLS) in Latvia. Motor function, memory and attention significantly differed between the exposed and control groups. Children living in front of the RLS had less developed memory and attention, their reaction time was slower and their neuromuscular apparatus endurance was decreased."
Comment: Radar exposure and it's effect on children.
Massachusetts Department Of Public Health (2007). Evaluation of the Incidence of the Ewing's Family of Tumors on Cape Cod, Massachusetts and the PAVE PAWS Radar Station.
"Based on our experience in radio frequency engineering, there is no obvious difference in the peak pulse powers received at the index sites relative to those received at the comparison sites. The measured peak pulse power levels at the index sites were of magnitudes individually, and as a set, that were very similar to those measured at the comparison sites. The index sites do not have exceptional characteristics with respect to the general propagation of energy from the PAVE PAWS radar. The peak pulse power levels obtained at the index sites fall within the normal range of emissions expected from the PAVE PAWS radar at publicly accessible locations on Cape Cod."
"13 individuals reported to have a diagnosis included in the between 1995 and present. From 1995-2004, more children on Cape Cod were diagnosed with an EFOT than expected. Seven children (ages 0-19) were diagnosed while approximately two would have been expected based on the statewide experience. This elevation is statistically significant (SIR=384, 95%CI =154-792). However, the width of the confidence interval shows that the SIR is unstable."
Comment: EFOT means Ewing's Family of Tumors and in Cape Cod there were quite high number of these rare tumours.
Lester, J. R. & Moore, D. F. (1982). Cancer mortality and Air Force bases, Journal of Bioelectricity, 1, 121-127. Nationally, counties with an Air Force Base were found to have significantly higher incidences of cancer mortality during 1950-1969 compared to counties without an Air Force Base. Comment: Authors studied the geographic incidence of cancer in Wichita, Kansas, relative to the Mid-Continent Airport and McConnell Air Base. Cancer mortality was found to be significantly related to the degree of radar exposure.
Lester, J. R. & Moore, D. F. (1985). Reply to "Cancer mortality and Air Force bases: A reevaluation", Journal of Bioelectricity, 4, 129-131. Comment: In this paper Lester and Moore replied to the critique concerning their previous paper and showed that results are still valid.
Preece, A., Georgiou, A. Dunn, E. & Farrow S. (2007). Health response of two communities to military antennae in Cyprus. Occupational Environmental Medicine . 2007 Jun;64(6):402-8.
"There was no excess of cancer, birth defects or obstetric problems. There was heightened risk perception and a considerable excess of migraine, headache and dizziness, which appears to share a gradient with radiofrequency exposure. The authors report this association but suggest this is unlikely to be an effect of radiofrequency and more likely to be antenna visibility or aircraft noise."
Comment: Combined military antennae + base station exposure. Noise was seen as a greater health risk than electromagnetic fields in this research paper. However, the symptoms (check the table in the document) indicate microwave illness type of symptoms.
Abelin, T., Altpeter, E., & Röösli, M. (2005). Sleep disturbances in the vicinity of the short-wave broadcast transmitter Schwarzenburg. Somnologie - Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin, 9(4), 203-209.
"The series of studies gives strong evidence of a causal relationship between operation of a short-wave radio transmitter and sleep disturbances in the surrounding population, but there is insufficient evidence to distinguish clearly between a biological and a psychological effect."
Altpeter, E., Battaglia, M, Bader, A., Pfluger, D., Minder, C. & Abelin, T. (2000) Ten Years Experience with Epidemiological Research in the Vicinity of the Short-Wave Broadcasting Area Schwarzenburg: What does the Story Tell Us?
Cherry, N. (2002) Evidence that Electromagnetic Radiation is Genotoxic. The implications for the epidemiology of cancer and cardiac, neurological and reproductive effects. August 2002. A report. Extended from a paper presented to the conference on Possible health effects on health of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, 29th June 2000 European Parliament, Brussels.
"For a high cancer rate to be detectable near a tower three factors are necessary:
1. There must be a large population. This requires a high population density because there is only a small area within 1 km radius of the tower and a proportion of this area is likely to be the open field in which the tower itself is sited. Many of the regional towers are in open country sides with very few people living near them.
2. There needs to be a high radiation exposure with 1 km of the tower for the radiation to be able to elevate the cancer rate. This occurs only for the lower frequency, VHF, FM signals, Figures 35.
3. The cancer type needs to be RF-radiation sensitive to assist in raising the cancer incidence above the background level. Leukaemia and Lymphoma are very RF-sensitive cancers, Szmigielski (1996), Milham (1985, 1988), Hocking et al. (1996), Table 1. "
Clark, M. L., Burch, J. B., Yost, M. G., Zhai, Y., Bachand, A. M., Fitzpatrick, C. T. E., et al. (2007). Biomonitoring of estrogen and melatonin metabolites among women residing near radio and television broadcasting transmitters. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(10), 1149-1156.
"Metabolites of estrogen (estrone-3-glucuronide [E1G]) and melatonin (6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate [6-OHMS]) were characterized among women living in a community with increased radiofrequency (RF) exposure from radio and television transmitters. ...CONCLUSIONS: RF and temporally stable 60-Hz exposures were associated with increased E1G excretion among postmenopausal women. Women with reduced nocturnal 6-OHMS excretion may represent a sensitive subgroup."
Goldsmith, J. (1996). Epidemiological studies of radio-frequency radiation: current status and areas of concern. The Science of the Total Environment, 180: 3-8.
"- there are findings from sets of studies which suggest four possible health effects from radar (radio-frequency radiation) exposure: (A) disturbances in blood counts, not necessarily of clinical severity; (B) changes in chromosomes of white blood cells; (C) increases in frequency of unfavorable reproductive outcomes, especially spontaneous abortion, and (D) increases in cancers of certain sites."
Goldsmith, J. (1997). Epidemiologic Evidence Relevant to Radar (Microwave) Effects. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Supplement 6, December 1997.
"...These findings suggest that RF exposures are potentially carcinogenic and have other health effects. Therefore, prudent avoidance of unneeded exposures is recommended as a precautionary measure. Epidemiologic studies of occupational groups such as military users and air traffic controllers should have high priority because their exposures can be reasonably well characterized and the effects reported are suitable for epidemiologic monitoring. Additional community studies are needed."
Goldsmith, J. (1995). Epidemiological Evidence of Radiofrequency Radiation (Microwave) Effects on Health in Military, Broadcasting, and Occupational Studies. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1, pp 47-57, 1995.
Hammett and Edison Inc. (1997). Engineering analysis of radio frequency exposure conditions with addition of digital TV channels". Prepared for Sutra Tower Inc., San Francisco, California, January 3, 1997.
Anderson, B. & Henderson, A. (1986) Cancer incidence in census tracts with broadcasting towers in Honolulu, Hawaii. Honolulu: State of Hawaii Department of Health, October 27, 1986.
"In eight out of nine census tracts containing broadcast towers, the incidence of cancers of all types was significantly higher than in adjacent census tracts that did not have broadcast towers."
Huttunen, P., Hänninen, O., & Myllylä, R. (2009). FM-radio and TV tower signals can cause spontaneous hand movements near moving RF reflector. Pathophysiology, In Press, Corrected Proof. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.01.002.
"A total of 29 adults of different ages were tested. There were 9 persons whose hand movement graphs included features like the RF-meter. Six showed responses that did not correlate with the RF-meter. There were also 14 persons who did not react at all. Sensitive persons seem to react to crossing standing waves of the FM-radio or TV broadcasting signals."
National Research Council. (2005). An assessment of potential health effects from exposure to PAVE PAWS low level phased array radiofrequency. Washington DC: The National Academies Press, 2005.
"In general, there is an absence or lack of sufficient health-related statistics available for Cape Cod residents to allow for a detailed descriptive analysis within smaller and more specific subdivisions such as counties, towns, census tract, and census block. ... The observed elevated cancer-incidence rates among residents of Cape Cod have not been adequately explained through subsequent investigations. ... While previous case-control and ecologic correlation studies have not provided compelling evidence for elevated cancer risk associated with exposure to the PAVE PAWS radar, it cannot be concluded from these studies that the PAVE PAWS radar is not associated with cancer risk. The previous studies have limitations relating to cancer-specific sample size and detailed exposure assessment."
Comment: Radar health effects evaluation, focused on population in Cape Cod, USA. Strangely, no references to Goldsmith (1996) , Reiter (2000) or Cherry (2002). Or to any epidemiological studies of FM Radio transmitters.
Schmiedel, S., Brüggemeyer, H., Philipp, J., Wendler, J., Merzenich, H., & Schüz, J. (2009). An evaluation of exposure metrics in an epidemiologic study on radio and television broadcast transmitters and the risk of childhood leukemia. Bioelectromagnetics, 30(2), 81-91. doi: 10.1002/bem.20460.
"The analysis of the agreement between calculated RF-EMF and measured RF-EMF showed a sensitivity of 76.6% and a specificity of 97.4%, leading to an exposure misclassification that still allows one to detect a true odds ratio as low as 1.4 with a statistical power of >80% at a two-sided significance level of 5% in a study with 2,000 cases and 6,000 controls. Thus, calculated RF-EMF is confirmed to be an appropriate exposure metric in large-scale epidemiological studies on broadcast transmitters."
Comment: The paper emphasises that the distance is not an adequate indicator of risk, more like, the radiation power density values should always be measured.
Selvin, S., Schulman, J. and Merrill, D.W. (1992) "Distance and risk measures for the analysis of spatial data: a study of childhood cancers". Soc. Sci. Med., 34(7):769-777.
"Three statistical approaches, used to detect spatial clusters of disease associated with a point source exposure, are applied to childhood cancer data for the city of San Francisco (1973-88). The distributions of incident cases of leukemia (51 cases), brain cancer (35 cases), and lymphatic cancer (37 cases) among individuals less than 21 years of age are described using three measures of clustering: distance on a geopolitical map, distance on a density equalized transformed map, and relative risk. The point source of exposure investigated is a large microwave tower located southwest of the center of the city (Sutro Tower). The three analytic approaches indicate that the patterns of the major childhood cancers are essentially random with respect to the point source."
Comment: The Hammett and Edison (1997) and Cherry (2002) explain this paper's findings and "randomness".
Theml, T. (2009). Subjektive Beschwerden der Anwohner in der Umgebung des Senders IBB Oberlaindern: Ergebnisse der Nachstudie. Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft, 20. Jahrgang, Ausgabe 4/2007, S. 257-348.
"Der Rückgang der Beschwerden von 2001 zu 2007 war dabei statistisch signifikant. Während im Frühjahr 2001 vor allem die Items zu Schlafstörungen, Nacken-/Schulterschmerzen und Energielosigkeit überdurchschnittliche Ausprägungen anzeigten und Konzentrationsschwäche und Taubheit in Händen/Füßen grenzwertig erhöht waren, entsprachen im Frühjahr 2007 alle Beschwerden den Erwartungswerten aus der Eichstichprobe. Der zeitliche Zusammenhang des Beschwerderückgangs mit der Stillegung des Senders legt eine kausale Beziehung zwischen Senderaktivität und Beschwerden nahe."
Comment: Dr Tina Theml studied the International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB) mast in Oberlaindern, Germany. She was able to study the mast and health effects when the mast was in operation and also when the mast was shut down. While in 2001 sleep disturbances, pain of the back of the neck or shoulders, lack of energy, lack of concentration and numbness in hands or feet were particularly increased, in 2007 when the mast was shut down all documented complaints had a normal level, as compared to the norm sample. The difference was statistically significant.
Yakymenko, I., Sidorik, E., Kyrylenko, S., & Chekhun, V. (2011). Long-term exposure to microwave radiation provokes cancer growth: evidences from radars and mobile communication systems. Experimental Oncology, 33(2), 62-70.
"In this review we discuss alarming epidemiological and experimental data on possible carcinogenic effects of long term exposure to low intensity microwave (MW) radiation. Recently, a number of reports revealed that under certain conditions the irradiation by low intensity MW can substantially induce cancer progression in humans and in animal models. The carcinogenic effect of MW irradiation is typically manifested after long term (up to 10 years and more) exposure."
Comment: Contains a very detailed explanation of biological effects and mechanisms which cause various health problems.