Research on mobile base stations and their impact on health

Epidemiological studies:

Base Station logo

Abdel-Rassoul, G., El-Fateh, O. A., Salem, M. A., Michael, A., Farahat, F. & El-Batanouny, M. (2007). Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations, Neurotoxicology, 28(2), 434-40.

"The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (P < 0.05). Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas and using of NBTB for regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended."

Comment: Within this research, the people were in the same building with antennas on the roof or in the opposite building (=very close to the radiation source). This caused a variety of symptoms. The study did not have radiation power density values included.

Berg-Beckhoff, G., Blettner, M., Kowall, B., Breckenkamp, J., Schlehofer, B., Schmiedel, S., et al. (2009). Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 2 of a cross-sectional study with measured radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Occup Environ Med, 66(2), 124-130.

"For the five health scores used, no differences in their medians were observed for exposed versus non-exposed participants. People who attributed adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations reported significantly more sleep disturbances and health complaints, but they did not report more headaches or less mental and physical health. Individuals concerned about mobile phone base stations did not have different well-being scores compared with those who were not concerned. In this large population-based study, measured RF-EMFs emitted from mobile phone base stations were not associated with adverse health effects."

Comment: Results differ from phase 1 (See Heinrich et al., 2008 and Blettner et al. 2009). Generally, this paper shows great variety in exposure conditions.

Blettner, M., Schlehofer, B, Breckenkamp, J., Kowall, B., Schmiedel, S. Reis, U., Potthoff, P., Schüz, J. & Berg-Beckhoff, G. (2009). Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany. Occup Environ Med 66:118-123.

"In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. RESULTS: Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18.7% of participants were concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phone base stations, while an additional 10.3% attributed their personal adverse health effects to the exposure from them. Participants who were concerned about or attributed adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations and those living in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station (500 m) reported slightly more health complaints than others. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the German population is concerned about adverse health effects caused by exposure from mobile phone base stations. The observed slightly higher prevalence of health complaints near base stations can not however be fully explained by attributions or concerns."

Comment: Those who were not concerned about base stations still reported more health problems close to the base station than people living more far away.

Bortkiewicz A, et al. [Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: review]. [Article in Polish] Med Pr. 2004;55(4):345-51.

"The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation."

Comment: See also the review of Khurana et al. (2010). Bortkiewicz-group research papers are also available in the Occupational exposure-section.

Dode, A., Leao, M., Tejo, F., Gomes, A., Dode, D., Dode, M., Moreira, C., Condessa, V., Albinatti, C. & Caiaffa, W. (2011). Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Sci Total Environ. 2011 Jul 7. [Epub ahead of print]

"A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. ... Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4V/m and the smallest was 0.4V/m. The largest density power was 40.78uW/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04uW/cm(2). ... The mortality rates and the relative risk were higher for the residents inside a radius of 500 m from the BS, compared to the average mortality rate of the entire city, and a decreased dose-response gradient was observed for residents who lived farther away from the BS

Comment: At the end of the paper, researchers emphasise the ALARA principle and discuss about several alternative, precautionary limits in various countries.

Eger, H. & Jahn, M. (2010). Spezifische Symptome und Mobilfunkstrahlung in Selbitz (Bayern) - Evidenz für eine Dosiswirkungsbeziehung. ("Specific Health Symptoms and Cell Phone Radiation in Selbitz (Bavaria, Germany)-Evidence of a Dose-Response Relationship") Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft, Feb. 2010: 130-139.

"Die mittlere Strahlenbelastung der höchstbelasteten Gruppen in Selbitz (1,2 V/m) lag deutlich höher als die untersuchte Studienpopulation der QUEBEB-Studie (1) des Deutschen Mobilfunkforschungsprogramms (Mittelwert DMF 0,07 V/m). Für die Beschwerden Schlafstörung, Depressionen, cerebrale Symptome, Gelenkbeschwerden, Infekte, Hautveränderungen, Herz-Kreislauf Störungen sowie Störungen des optischen und akustischen Sensoriums und des Magen-Darm-Traktes besteht eine signifikante dosiswirkungsabhängige Korrelation zu objektiv bestimmten Expositionslagen, die mit dem Einfluss von Mikrowellen auf das Nervensystem des Menschen erklärt wird."

"The mean radiation measurements of the groups exposed at most in Selbitz (1.2 V/m) was substantially higher than the mean radiation of the study population studied in the QUEBEB study (1) of the German mobile telephone research program (Deutsches Mobilfunkforschungsprogramm DMF, established mean value DMF 0.07 V/m). A significant correlation was found dependent on dose-effects for insomnia, depressions, cerebral symptoms, joint illnesses, infections, skin changes, heart and circulation disorders, and disorders of the optical and acoustic sensory systems and the gastro-intestinal tract with objectively determined locations of exposure, which can be related by the influence of microwaves on the human nervous system."

Comment: It is important where the cut point is set. Eger and Jahn used radiation estimates, power density measurements were not conducted.

Eger, H., Hagen, K., Lucas, B. Vogel, P. & Voit, H. (2004). The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer. Published in Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft 17,4 2004, as: "Einfluss der räumlichen Nähe von Mobilfunksendeanlagen auf die Krebsinzidenz".

"In the years 1999-2004, ie after five years operation of the transmitting installation, the relative risk of getting cancer had trebled for the residents of the area in the proximity of the installation compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the area."

Gadzicka, E., Bortkiewicz, A., Zmyslony, M., Szymczak, W. & Szyjkowska, A. (2006). Assessment of subjective complaints reported by people living near mobile phone base stations. Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland. Workshop PTZE Electromagnetics technics in preventive health, Lodz, Poland 13-15 December 2006 (Biuletyn PTZE, nr 14, Warszawa 2006, pp 23-26)

"The study subjects comprised 500 people from 5 regions of the city of Lodz, living in houses located at the distances of up to 50 m, 50-100m, 100-150m, 150-200m and over 200m from the base station. The distance from base station is the estimated value of exposure to EMF. There were 181 (36.2%) men aged 46.2 29.0 years and 319 (63.8%) women aged 50.117.0 years.
...A significant relationship was found to occur between the frequency of some symptoms and the distance from the base station. Everyday headaches were most frequent in respondents living at the distance 100-150 m from the base station in comparison with subjects living in farther distances. Differences were statistically significant (p=0,013). Symptoms of depression were most frequently reported by people living at the distance 50-100 m (23,3%) and over 200 m (21,3%). Differences were at the borderline of statistical significance (p=0.059). It seems important to note that only 1.8% of subjects reported their concern about possible harmful effects of the base stations."

Heinrich et al. (2008). Abschlussbericht - MobilEe - Mobilfunk: Exposition und Befinden. Epidemiologische Untersuchung zu möglichen akuten gesundheitlichen Effekten durch Mobilfunk bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. München, Juni 2008.

"Es zeigten sich insgesamt sowohl für die Kinder als auch für die Jugendlichen keine statistisch signifikanten konsistenten Zusammenhänge zwischen der gemessenen Exposition und den betrachteten chronischen und akuten Beschwerden... Kinder, die täglich oder fast täglich Telefonate mit Mobiltelefon oder DECT führten, wiesen eine höhere Prävalenz der chronischen Müdigkeit auf (jeweils p=0,03)." " Jugendliche, die in weniger als 500 Meter Entfernung von einer Basisstation wohnten, berichteten tendenziell etwas häufiger über chronische Müdigkeit." "Dort war eine WLAN-Exposition im 2. Quartil mit einer signifikant häufigeren Angabe von chronischer Angst assoziert (Tabelle 44)."

Comment: A German report about children and how the microwave exposure affects. Generally, there was no consistent picture between measured exposure and symptoms. Starting from page 160: Children who daily used mobile or DECT phones showed signs of chronic nausea. Youngsters who lived 500 m or closer to a base station showed increased nausea. Wi-Fi exposure was associated to chronical discomfort and irritability feeling (Angst).

Hutter, H., Moshammer, H., Wallner, P. & Kundi, M. (2006). Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations, Occupational and environmental medicine, 63(5), 307-13.

"Total HF-EMF and exposure related to mobile telecommunication were far below recommended levels (max. 4.1 mW/m²). Distance from antennae was 24-600 m in the rural area and 20-250 m in the urban area. Average power density was slightly higher in the rural area (0.05 mW/m²) than in the urban area (0.02 mW/m²). Despite the influence of confounding variables, including fear of adverse effects from exposure to HF-EMF from the base station, there was a significant relation of some symptoms to measured power density; this was highest for headaches. Perceptual speed increased, while accuracy decreased insignificantly with increasing exposure levels. There was no significant effect on sleep quality. CONCLUSION: Despite very low exposure to HF-EMF, effects on wellbeing and performance cannot be ruled out, as shown by recently obtained experimental results; however, mechanisms of action at these low levels are unknown."

Comment: Hutter et al indicated that the radiation average in cities was 0,02 mW/m² = 20 µW/m². In larger cities these values are (unfortunately) often in thousands of µW/m². The interesting question is: Does mobile phone use and base station exposure explain the general increase of migraine and headaches?

Meyer, M., Gärtig-Daugs, A., & Radespiel-Tröger, M. (2006). Mobilfunkbasisstationen und Krebshäufigkeit in Bayern. Umweltmedizin Forschung & Praxis, 11 (2), 89-97.

"Cancer incidence was not found to be elevated in municipalities with cellular telephone relay stations. The cancer incidence was highly variable in areas without any relay station. The mean age of cancer patients living in towns with relay stations was comparable to that of patients living in villages and towns far away from any relay station. Cancer occurrence in special tumour sites thought to be sensible for radiation effects did not show an association with the locations of the cellular telephone infrastructure."

Comment: Authors did not find a connection between cancer and base stations in Bavaria, Germany. The cancer registry in Bavaria was quite new. What is strange is that Meyer et al. did not include the Bavarian (Bayern) city of Naila in their research à See Eger et al. (2004) above.

Navarro, E., Segure, J., Portelés, M., Gomez Perretta, C. (2003). The microwave Syndrome: A preliminary Study in Spain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 22: 161-169.

"A health survey was carried out in Murcia, Spain, in the vicinity of a Cellular Phone Base Station working in DCS-1800 MHz. This survey contained health items related to "microwave sickness" or "RF syndrome." The microwave power density was measured at the respondents' homes. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between the declared severity of the symptoms and the measured power density. The separation of respondents into two different exposure groups also showed an increase of the declared severity in the group with the higher exposure."

Comment: The average power density value close to base stations in the study of Navarro et al. was 0.11 µW/cm² = 1100 µW/m². That radiation level caused various symptoms.

Santini, R., Santini, P., Le Ruz, P., Danze, J. & Seigne, M. (2003). Survey Study of People Living in the Vicinity of Cellular Phone Base Stations. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 22: 41-49

"A survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in proximity to cellular phone base stations. Eighteen different symptoms (Non Specific Health Symptoms-NSHS), described as radiofrequency sickness, were studied by means of the chi-square test with Yates correction. The results that were obtained underline that certain complaints are experienced only in the immediate vicinity of base stations (up to 10 m for nausea, loss of appetite, visual disturbances), and others at greater distances from base stations (up to 100 m for irritability, depressive tendencies, lowering of libido, and up to 200 m for headaches, sleep disturbances, feeling of discomfort). In the 200 m to 300 m zone, only the complaint of fatigue is experienced significantly more often when compared with subjects residing at more than 300 m or not exposed (reference group). For seven of the studied symptoms and for the distance up to 300 m, the frequency of reported complaints is significantly higher (P < 0.05) for women in comparison with men. Significant differences are also observed in relation to the ages of subjects, and for the location of subjects in relation to the antennas and other electromagnetic factors."

Comment: This document did not include power density measurements, only discussed how the distance affects. Interesting was that within 10 meter distance (base station on the roof) there were symptoms like nausea, loss of appetite, visual disturbances. So, very close to then antenna the symptoms seem to be different from symptoms experienced at a greater distance.

See also:

Santini R, et al. Enqute sur la sante de riverains de stations relais de telephonie mobile : I/Incidences de la distance et du sexe. [Symptoms experienced by people in vicinity of base station: I/Incidences of distance and sex.] Pathol Biol (Paris). 2002 Jul;50(6):369-73.

Santini R, et al. Enqute sur la sant de riverains de stations relais de telephonie mobile: II/ Incidences de lge des sujets, de la dure de leur exposition et de leur position par rapport aux antennes et autres sources electromagntiques. [Symptoms experienced by people in vicinity of base stations:: II/ Incidences of age, duration of exposure, location of subjects in relation to the antennas and other electromagnetic factors.] Pathol Biol (Paris). 2003 Sep;51(7):412-5.

Santini R, et al.. Symptomes experims par des riverains de stations relais de telephonie mobile. La Presse Medicale. 2001;30:1594.

Shahbazi-Gahrouei, D., Karbalae, M., Moradi, H. & Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, M. (2013). Health effects of living near mobile phone base transceiver station (BTS) antennae: a report from Isfahan, Iran. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine,

"Results - The results showed that most of the symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically significant in the inhabitants living near the BTS antenna less than 300 m distances) compared to those living far from the BTS antenna ( more than 300 m). Conclusion - It is suggested that cellular phone BTS antenna should not be sited closer than 300 m to populations to minimize exposure of neighbors."

Comment: .

Wolf, R. & Wolf, D. (2004). Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station. International Journal of Cancer Prevention. Vol. 1, No. 2, April 2004.

"Both measured and predicted power density (for the frequencies of 850 MHz) in the whole exposed area were far below 0.53 µw/cm² thus the power density is far below the current guidelines which are based on the thermal effects of RF exposure. Exact measured power density in each house are described in table 1. The current Israeli standard uses 50 packets/sec with Time-Division-Multiple-Access (TDMA) quadrature modulation. The antenna produces 50 packets/sec, using a 3:1 multiplexed Time-Division-Multiple-Access (TDMA) modulation with a 33% duty cycle. ...Cancer incidence of women in area A was thus significantly higher (p<0.0001) compared with that of area B and the whole city. A comparison of the relative risk revealed that there were 4.15 times more cases in area A than in the entire population."

Comment: Women were more likely to have symptoms and illnesses close to base stations than men (7 out of 8 cases). Especially breast cancer rates were higher close to the base station.



Atzmon, I., Linn, S., Richter, E., & Portnov, B. A. (2011). Cancer risks in the Druze Isifya Village: Reasons and RF/MW antennas. Pathophysiology: The Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology / ISP. doi:10.1016/j.pathophys.2011.07.005

Objective: To investigate the association between past exposure to RF/MW transmitters and cancer risks, taking into account familial cancer history, occupational exposures and indicators of life-style. Methods: We carried out a population-based case-control study involving 307 residents, of whom 47 were diagnosed between 1989 and 2007 with different types of cancer and 260 controls. Cancer diagnoses were obtained from medical the records. Exposure status of individual houses were determined from a map, based on the distances between each house and RF/MW antennas, and were calculated using geographic information systems (GIS) toolsConclusion: There was evidence for an increased risk of cancers which were associated with chemicals in manufacturing and agriculture and electronics, where there may have been exposures to EMF, but the study did not confirm the suspicion of increased cancer risks associated with radiation for most cancer types in this village. Misclassification of past exposures could explain the negative finding.

Augner C. & Hacker, G.W. (2009). Are people living next to mobile phone base stations more strained? Relationship of health concerns, self-estimated distance to base station, and psychological parameters. Indian Journal of Occupational Environmental Medicine, 13(3):141-5.

"Fifty-seven participants completed standardized and non-standardized questionnaires that focused on the relevant parameters. In addition, saliva samples were used as an indication to determine the psychobiological strain by concentration of alpha-amylase, cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and substance P. RESULTS: Self-declared base station neighbors (DBS <= 100 meters) had significantly higher concentrations of alpha-amylase in their saliva, higher rates in symptom checklist subscales (SCL) somatization, obsessive-compulsive, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and global strain index PST (Positive Symptom Total)."

Breckenkamp, J., Blettner, M., Kowall, B., Schüz, J., Schlehofer, B., Schmiedel, S., Bornkessel, C., Reis, U., Potthoff, P. & Berg-Beckhoff, G. (2010).

Ergebnisse einer Querschnittsstudie zum Zusammenhang von elektromagnetischen Feldern von Mobilfunksendeanlagen und unspezifischen gesundheitlichen Beschwerden (original article in German). Results of a cross-sectional study on the association of electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile phone base stations and health complaints. Umweltmed Forsch Prax 2010; 15 (3): 159 - 166.

"Background: Despite the fact that adverse health effects are not confirmed for exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RFEMF) levels below the limit values, as defined in the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, many persons are worried about possible adverse health effects caused by the RF-EMF emitted from mobile phone base stations, or they attribute their unspecific health complaints like headache or sleep disturbances to these fields.
Method: In the framework of a cross-sectional study a questionnaire was sent to 4150 persons living in predominantly urban areas. Participants were asked whether base stations affected their health. Health complaints were measured with standardized health questionnaires for sleep disturbances, headache, health complaints and mental and physical health. 3,526 persons responded (85%) to the questionnaire and 1,808 (51%) agreed to dosimetric measurements in their flats. Exposure was measured in 1,500 flats.
Results: The measurements accomplished in the bedrooms in most cases showed very low exposure values, most often below sensitivity limit of the dosimeter. An association of exposure with the occurrence of health complaints was not found, but an association between the attribution of adverse health effects to base stations and the occurrence of health complaints."

Comment: Strange language about ICNIRP guidance levels and strange selection of a meter. The dosimetric measurements should perhaps measure also low-level electric and magnetic fields + transients. The base station may cause power quality problems in the whole house, not only in the apartment below antennas.

Buchner, K. & Eger, H. (2011). Veränderung klinisch bedeutsamer Neurotransmitter unter dem Einfluss modulierter hochfrequenter Felder - Eine Langzeiterhebung unter lebensnahen Bedingungen (Modification of clinically important neurotransmitters under the influence of modulated high-frequency fields - A long-term study under true-to-life conditions) Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft, 24(1), 44-57.

"This long-term study over one and a half years shows a significant activation of the 60 participants adrenergic systems after the installation of a regional mobile telephone transmitting station in the village of Rimbach (Bavaria). The values of the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline grow significantly during the first six months after starting the GSM transmitter; the values of the precursor substance dopamine decreases substantially after the beginning of the radiation ...The effects show a dose effect relation and are situated far under the valid limits for technical high-frequency stress. Chronic dysregulations of the catecholamine system have a substantial health relevance and cause health damages in the long run."

Comment: Interestingly, these findings of increased adrenaline/noradrenaline and decreased dopamine are similar to an observation made by a group of medical doctors earlier.

Eger, H. & Neppe, F. (2009). Krebsinzidenz von Anwohnern im Umkreis einer Mobilfunksendeanlage in Westfalen - Interview-basierte Piloterhebung und Risikoschätzung

"In a remote part of a town in Westphalia, from 2000 to 2007 the cancer incidence within a 400-metre radius of a mobile telephone transmitting station was ascertained by a door-to-door survey. The data based on interviews with 575 inhabitants showed a statistically significant raise of the cancer incidence five years after the transmitting station had been started."

Elliott, P., Toledano, M. B., Bennett, J., Beale, L., de Hoogh, K., Best, N., & Briggs, D. J. (2010). Mobile phone base stations and early childhood cancers: case-control study. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.), 340, c3077.

"Objective: To investigate the risk of early childhood cancers associated with the mother's exposure to radiofrequency from and proximity to macrocell mobile phone base stations (masts) during pregnancy. Design: Case-control study. ...
Results: Mean distance of registered address at birth from a macrocell base station, based on a national database of 76890 base station antennas in 1996-2001,was similar for cases and controls (1107 (SD 1131)mv 1073 (SD 1130) m, P=0.31), as was total power output of base stations within 700 m of the address (2.89 (SD 5.9) kW v 3.00 (SD 6.0) kW, P=0.54) and modelled power density (-30.3 (SD 21.7) dBm v -29.7 (SD 21.5) dBm, P=0.41). ...
Conclusions: There is no association between risk of early childhood cancers and estimates of the mother's exposure to mobile phone base stations during pregnancy".

Comment: The power density values were modelled, not measured. No picocells or microcells (closest transmitters to mothers) were included. The overall RF exposure of mothers and children to DECT-base stations and mobile phones was not included. Powerwatch provided also a comment about the modelling work of Elliott et al.:

Gómez-Perretta, C., Navarro, E.A., Segura, J. & Portolés, M. (2013). Subjective symptoms related to GSM radiation from mobile phone base stations: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2013; 3(12): e003836.

"We observed that the incidence of most of the symptoms was related to exposure levels—independently of the demographic variables and some possible risk factors. Concerns about adverse effects from exposure, despite being strongly related with sleep disturbances, do not influence the direct association between exposure and sleep."

Hacker, G. & Pauser, G. (2007). Wirkungen von GSM-Sendeanlagen auf den Menschen. Wissenschaftliches Forschungsprojekt der Salzburger Landeskliniken (SALK), IGGMB - Forschungsinstitut für Grund- und Grenzfragen der Medizin und Biotechnologie. Kurzbericht.

"Das körpereigene Abwehrsystem wird tatsächlich geschwächt. Biochemisch zeigte sich in den Speichelanalysen, dass höhere Exposition zu einer biologisch relevanten Immunsuppression führte. Es zeigte sich eine statistisch signifikante Veränderung im Cortisolspiegel; weiters fanden sich auffallende Veränderungen in den Verläufen des alpha-Amylase-Spiegels, einem weiteren verlässlichen Stress-Marker, und im Immunglobulin-A-Spiegel (Antikörper-Ausschüttung im Speichel). Auch die GDVAnalysen zeigten nicht bei allen, aber bei vielen ProbandInnen immer wieder stressende Einflüsse auf. ...Fazit: Der "alte" "Salzburger Vorsorgewert" von 1000 µW/m² (= 1 mW/m²) aus dem Jahr 1998 erscheint absolut gerechtfertigt; er liegt eher zu hoch als zu niedrig, denn Veränderungen sind schon bei der Hälfte also bereits bei etwa 500 µW/m² erkennbar. Auch die Absenkung im Jahr 2002 erscheint damit auch auf Basis der vorliegenden Ergebnisse nachvollziehbar."

Comment: 3 different radiation power density levels 3000 µW/m². , 540 µW/m². and 10 µW/m² were inspected. Blood samples indicated stress markers starting from the 500 µW/m² radiation power density level. As a summary, they recommend 10 µW/m² level (Salzburg Land (State) recommendation value).

Kundi, M., & Hutter, H. (2009). Mobile phone base stations-Effects on wellbeing and health. Pathophysiology.

"Studying effects of mobile phone base station signals on health have been discouraged by authoritative bodies like WHO International EMF Project and COST 281 ...From available evidence it is impossible to delineate a threshold below which no effect occurs, however, given the fact that studies reporting low exposure were invariably negative it is suggested that power densities around 0.5-1 mW/m² must be exceeded in order to observe an effect. The meager data base must be extended in the coming years. The difficulties of investigating long-term effects of base station exposure have been exaggerated, considering that base station and handset exposure have almost nothing in common both needs to be studied independently. It cannot be accepted that studying base stations is postponed until there is firm evidence for mobile phones."

Oberfeld, G., Navarro, A., Enrigue, Portoles, M., Maestu, Ceferino, Gomez- Perretta, C. (2004). The Microwave Syndrome: Further Aspects of a Spanish Study.

"Based on the data of this study the advice would be to strive for levels not highter than 0.02 V/m for the sum total, which is equal to a power density of 0.0001 µW/cm² or 1 µW/m², which is the indoor exposure value for GSM base stations proposed on empirical evidence by the Public Health Office of the Government of Salzburg in 2002."