Research on occupational microwave exposure

Epidemiological studies:

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Baste, V., Riise, T., & Moen, B. E. (2008). Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; male infertility and sex ratio of offspring. European Journal of Epidemiology, 23(5), 369-77.

"The authors performed a cross-sectional study among military men employed in the Royal Norwegian Navy, including information about work close to equipment emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, one-year infertility, children and sex of the offspring. ...In a logistic regression, odds ratio (OR) for infertility among those who had worked closer than 10 m from high-frequency aerials to a "very high" degree relative to those who reported no work near high-frequency aerials was 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46-2.37), adjusted for age, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and exposure to organic solvents, welding and lead. Similar adjusted OR for those exposed to a "high", "some" and "low" degree were 1.93 (95% CI: 1.55-2.40), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.25-1.84), and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.15-1.68), respectively. In all age groups there were significant linear trends with higher prevalence of involuntary childlessness with higher self-reported exposure to radiofrequency fields."

Comment: Mostly radar exposure, fertility problems. The comparison group was also exposed to radar.

Behrens, T., Lynge, E., Cree, I., Sabroe, S., Lutz, J.-M., Afonso, N., Eriksson, M., et al. (2010). Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and sex-differential risk of uveal melanoma. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 67(11), 751-759. "293 patients with uveal melanoma and 3198 control subjects were interviewed. Women exposed to electrical transmission installations showed elevated risks (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.72 to 19.66). Positive associations with exposure to control rooms were seen among men and women, but most risk increases were restricted to subjects with dark iris colour. Application of published EMF measurements revealed stronger risk increases among women compared to men. Again, elevated risks were restricted to subjects with dark eye colour."

Bortkiewicz, A., Zmyslony, M., Palczynski, C., Gadzicka, E. and Szmigielski, S. (1995). Dysregulation of autonomic control of cardiac function in workers at AM broadcasting stations (0.738-1.503 MHz). Electro- and Magnetobiology 14(3), 177-191.

"The results suggest that exposure of workers to EM fields can cause slight disturbances in autonomic cardiac regulation and slight dysregulation of circadian rhythms in workers exposed to EM fields exceeding 100-150 V/m."

Comment: See also Szmigielski et al. (1998), similar findings. Results are often frequency/technology specific.

Bortkiewicz, A., Gadzicka. E. & Zmyslony, M. (1996). Heart rate variability in workers exposed to medium-frequency electromagnetic fields. (1996). Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 59(3), 91-97.

"This study was undertaken to evaluate the neurovegetative regulation of the heart in workers occupationally exposed to medium frequency (MF) electromagnetic (EM) fields. The subjects were 71 workers of MF broadcast stations, aged 20-68 (mean 47.1) with the duration of work under exposure ranging from 2-40 years and 22 workers of radio link stations, aged 21-65 (mean 46.9) who were not exposed to MF EM fields ...Thus it was concluded that occupational exposure to EM fields brings about impairments in the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiovascular function.

Daily, L.E. (1943). A clinical study of the results of exposure of laboratory personnel to radar and high frequency radio. US Navy Med. Bull. 41, 1052-1056.

Comment: Increase in immature red blood cells among workers exposed to radar

Dasdag, S., Balci, K., Kaya, H. & Celik, M.S. (1999). Hormone levels of people occupationally exposed to radiofrequencies. Biochem. Arch. 15, 255-260.

Davis, R. L. & Mostofi, F. K. (1993). Cluster of testicular cancer in police officers exposed to hand-held radar. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 24(2), 231-233.

"Within a cohort of 340 police officers, six incident cases of testicular cancer occurred between 1979 and 1991 (O/E 6.9; p < 0.001, Poisson distribution). Occupational use of hand-held radar was the only shared risk factor among all six officers, and all routinely held the radar gun directly in close proximity to their testicles."

Dmoch, A. & Moszczynski, P. (1998). Levels of immunoglobulin and subpopulations of T lymphocytes and NK cells in men occupationally exposed to microwave radiation in frequencies of 6-12 GHz. Medycyna Pracy 49, 45-49 (in Polish).

Drogitschina, E. A. & Sadtschikowa, M. N. (1964). Klinische Syndrome bei der Wirkung von unterschiedlichen Radiofrequenzbereichen. O biologitscheskom wosdejstwii biologitscheskich polej radiotschastot 2, S. 105

Comment: Sample size: 160 workers. Dominant symptoms: Neurasthenia, vegetative syndrome, cardiovascular problems, hypotony, hypoglycaemia.

Finkelstein, M. M. (1998). Cancer incidence among Ontario police officers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 34(2), 157-162

This report presents the results of a retrospective cohort cancer incidence study among 22,197 officers employed by 83 Ontario police departments. The standardized incidence ration (SIR) for all tumors sites was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83-0.98). There was an increased incidence of testicular cancer (SIR = 1.3, 90% CI = 0.9-1.8) and melanoma skin cancer (SIR = 1.45, 90% CI = 1.1-1.9)."

Comment: Take a look at reported police radar and cancer cases:

Forman, S. A., Holmes, C. K., McManamon, T. V., & Wedding, W. R. (1982). Psychological symptoms and intermittent hypertension following acute microwave exposure. Journal of Occupational Medicine.: Official Publication of the Industrial Medical Association, 24(11), 932-934.

"Two men who were accidentally, acutely irradiated with X-band microwave radiation have been followed up clinically for 12 months. Both men developed similar psychological symptoms, which included emotional lability, irritability, headaches, and insomnia. Several months after the incidents, hypertension was diagnosed in both patients. No organic basis for the psychological problems could be found nor could any secondary cause for the hypertension. A similar syndrome following microwave exposure has been described by the East Europeans. The two cases we report, with comparable subjective symptoms and hypertension following a common exposure, provide further strong, circumstantial evidence of cause and effect. A greater knowledge of the mechanisms involved in bioeffects which may be induced by radiofrequency and microwave radiation is definitely needed."

Garaj-Vrhovac, V., Gajski, G., Pazanin, S., Sarolic, A, Domijan, AM., Flajs, D. & Peraica, M. (2011). Assessment of cytogenetic damage and oxidative stress in personnel occupationally exposed to the pulsed microwave radiation of marine radar equipment. International Journal of Hygienic Environtal Health, 214(1):59-65.

"Study was aimed at workers occupationally exposed to pulsed microwave radiation, originating from marine radars. Electromagnetic field strength was measured at assigned marine radar frequencies (3 GHz, 5.5 GHz and 9.4 GHz) and corresponding specific absorption rate values were determined. ... suggesting that cytogenetic alterations occurred after microwave exposure. ... The glutathione concentration in exposed group was significantly lower than in controls (1.24 vs. 0.53) whereas the concentration of malondialdehyde was significantly higher (1.74 vs. 3.17), indicating oxidative stress. Results suggests that pulsed microwaves from working environment can be the cause of genetic and cell alterations and that oxidative stress can be one of the possible mechanisms of DNA and cell damage."

Comment: Confirms the previous genotoxic findings of the Garaj-Vrhovac group.

Garaj-Vrhovac, V. (1999). Micronucleus assay and lymphocyte mitotic activity in risk assessment of occupational exposure to microwave radiation. Chemosphere, 39(13), 2301-12.

"The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) on the cell kinetics and genome damages in peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined in lymphocytes of 12 subjects occupationally exposed to microwave radiation. Results showed an increase in frequency of micronuclei (MN) as well as disturbances in the distribution of cells over the first, second and third mitotic division in exposed subjects compared to controls. According to previous reports micronucleus assay can serve as a suitable indicator for the assessment of exposure to genotoxic agents (such as RFR) and the analysis of mitotic activity as an additional parameter for the efficient biomonitoring."

Comment: Radar exposure, micronuclei development.

Grajewski, B., Cox, C., Schrader, S. M., Murray, W. E., Edwards, R. M., Turner, T. W., et al. (2000). Semen quality and hormone levels among radiofrequency heater operators. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 42(10), 993-1005.

"For 12 male heater operators and a comparison group of 34 RF-unexposed men, we measured 33 parameters of semen quality and four serum hormones. ...We observed minor semen quality and hormonal differences between the groups, including a slightly higher mean follicle-stimulating hormone level for exposed operators (7.6 vs 5.8 mIU/mL)".

Grayson, J. K. (1996). Radiation exposure, socioeconomic status, and brain tumor risk in the US Air Force: a nested case-control study. American Journal of Epidemiology Mar 1;143(5):480-6.

"A nested case-control study was used to investigate the relation between a range of electromagnetic field exposures and brain tumor risk in the US Air Force. Cumulative extremely low frequency and radiofrequency/microwave electromagnetic field potential exposures were estimated from a job-exposure matrix developed for this study. Ionizing radiation exposures were obtained from personal dosimetry records. Men who were exposed to nonionizing electromagnetic fields had a small excess risk for developing brain tumors, with the extremely low frequency and radiofrequency/microwave age-race-senior military rank-adjusted odds ratios being 1.28 (95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.95-1.74) and 1.39 (95% Cl 1.01-1.90), respectively. By contrast, men who were exposed to ionizing radiation had an age-race-senior military rank-adjusted odds ratio of 0.58 (95% Cl 0.22-1.52). These results support a small association between extremely low frequency and radiofrequency/microwave electromagnetic field exposure and no association between ionizing radiation exposure and brain tumors in the US Air Force population. Military rank was consistently associated with brain tumor risk. Officers were more likely than enlisted men to develop brain tumors (age-race-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.11, 95% Cl 1.48-3.01), and senior officers were at increased risk compared with all other US Air Force members (age-race-adjusted OR = 3.30, 95% Cl 1.99-5.45).

Goldoni, J. (1990). Hematological changes in peripheral blood of workers occupationally exposed to microwave radiation. Health Physics, 58 , 205-207.

"The estimated exposures ranged from 10 PW to 20 mW in a frequency range of 1250-1350 MHz. The numbers of leukocytes and erythrocytes was significantly lower in the radar-exposed technicians."

Comment: Flight traffic controllers and radar exposure.

Groves, F. D., Page, W. F., Gridley, G., Lisimaque, L., Stewart, P. A., Tarone, R. E., et al. (2002). Cancer in Korean War Navy Technicians: Mortality Survey after 40 Years. Am. J. Epidemiol., 155(9), 810-818.

"There was no evidence of increased brain cancer in the entire cohort (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7, 1.1) or in high-exposure occupations (SMR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0). Testicular cancer deaths also occurred less frequently than expected in the entire cohort and high-exposure occupations. Death rates for several smoking-related diseases were significantly lower in the high-exposure occupations. Nonlymphocytic leukemia was significantly elevated among men in high-exposure occupations but in only one of the three high-exposure occupations, namely, electronics technicians in aviation squadrons (SMR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.7). Radar exposure had little effect on mortality in this cohort of US Navy veterans."

Hocking, B. (2003). RE: " Cancer in Korean War Navy Technicians: Mortality Survey after 40 Years ". Am. J. Epidemiol., 157(3), 279.

"However, in the original article, Robinette et al. stated that "actual exposure to members of each cohort could not be established" (2, p. 39). Even the high-exposure group was said to have exposures probably below 1 mW/cm² during duty hours, although it was also stated that "their exposure pattern... infrequently includes exposures larger than 100 mW/cm²" (2, p. 42). However, there was no interpretation of "infrequently," be it daily, weekly, monthly, or annually. This is a crucial weakness, because the distinction between the maximum and minimum exposure-opportunity groups largely rests on the occurrence of these undefined infrequent high exposures. Because of the ill-defined nature of these exposures, misclassification is likely, and therefore comparisons between the maximum/high and minimum/low exposure groups are tenuous at best. Results should be reported tentatively rather than as if they were part of an established gradient of exposure, as Groves et al. implied in their table 4. ...The main conclusion that can be drawn from the data as presented by Groves et al. is that US Navy veterans of the Korean War who were exposed to radar at undetermined average exposure levels of less than 1 mW/cm² for unspecified durations of less than 5 years do not have increased mortality."

Israel, M., Vangelova, K., & Tschobanoff, P. (2006). Study of the secretion of melatonin and stress hormones in operators from broadcasting and TV stations exposed to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR). In Biolectromagnetics, Current Concepts (pp. 271-280).

"Exposure to low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from GSM was not found to rise changes in melatonin secretion, but there are no data on the effect of higher radiofrequency intensities, as they usually occur in the occupational environment. The excretion of 6- sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), the main melatonin metabolite, is considered a good indicator of rhythmic melatonin production. The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of radiofrequency EMR on aMT6s and stress hormones excretion rates in communication operators during fast-rotating extended shifts. The study comprised 36 male operators as follows: 12 broadcasting station (BC) operators (6-25 MHz), 12 TV station operators (66.5 - 900 MHz) and 12 satellite (SAT) station operators (5.850 - 6.425 GHz)."

Johnson Liakouris, A. G. (1997). Radiofrequency (RF) sickness in the Lilienfeld Study: an effect of modulated microwaves? Archives of environmental health, 53(3), 236-238.

"It should be noted, however, that in the Liliefeld Study, other higher and statistically significant effect relative to controls were not accounted for. Four the effects are clinical manifestations that Soviets have attributed to RF sickness: (1) dermographism (i.e., psoriasis, eczema, and inflammatory and allergic skin problems); (2) neurological (i.e., diseases of the peripheral nerves and ganlia among males); (3) reproductive (i.e., problems during pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium); and (4) tumors (benign among men, malignant among women). Other reviews of the Lilienfed Study have contained information about additional hermatological changes that occurred among the embassy personnel. Three of the effects are mood alterations attributed to the syndrome: (1) irritability; (2) depression; and (3) loss of appetite. ...The frequency range was between 0.6 and 9.5 GHz. Exposures occurred 6-8 h/d, 5 d/wk. Each modulation (e.e., phase, amplitude, and pulse) was transmitted for only 48 h (or less) at a time. The average exposure per individual was 2-4 y. The intensity range was between 0,002 and 0,028 mW/cm². Intensities were 1000 times below the safety guidelines proposed in the United States, but the range met Soviet Safety standards for the public - a fact that shifts attention to the properties of the exposure parameters."

Comment: US embassy radar exposure in Moscow 1958-1988. The radio sickness ala microwave syndrome symptoms are listed.

Lilienfeld, A.M., Tonascia, J., and Tonascia S., Libauer, C.A., and Cauthen, G.M., 1978: "Foreign Service health status study - evaluation of health status of foreign service and other employees from selected eastern European posts". Final Report (Contract number 6025-619073) to the U.S. Dept of State, July 31, 1978.

"Significant neurological effects from chronic low level radar exposure, including Depression (p=0.004), Irritability (p=0.009), Memory Loss (p=0.008) and Difficulty in Concentrating (p=0.001)."

Comment: The US embassy in Moscow, chronic irradiation by Soviet radar 1958-1988. Several leukaemia cases and above mentioned symptoms. See Becker & Selden (1984). Chromosomal abnormality tests show that there were substantially increased frequencies of mutation in 18 out of 36 individuals exposed at the Moscow Embassy tested (including two with growth failure for the cultured cells (Goldsmith, 1996).

McLaughlin, J. T. (1953). A Survey of Possible Health Hazards from Exposure to Microwave Radiation. Hughes Aircraft Corp., Culver City, CA, 1953, p. 84.

Comment: Various forms of leukaemia among men (30-40 years old) who had repaired radar equipment. Reported in 1953. In 1952 Dr. Frederic G. Hirsch of the Sandia Corporation, a maker of missile guidance systems, reported the first known case of cataracts in a microwave technician. The following year Bell Laboratories, alarmed by reports of sterility and baldness among its own workers as well as military radar personnel, suggested a safety level of 100 microwatts, a hundred times less than Schwan's limit (see Becker & Selden, 1984).

McLaughlin, J. T. (1957). Tissue destruction and death from microwave radiation (radar). California Medicine, 86(5), 336-339.

McLaughlin, J. T. (1962). Health hazards from microwave radiation. Western Medicine, 3(4), 126-132.

Meric, F., Dasdag, S., & Vergili, K. (1998). Do radiofrequency radiation affect the auditory system of people with occupational exposure? Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 3(1), 55-58.

"The present study intended to investigate whether radiofrequency (RF) affects auditory system of people who are occupationally exposed to RF in terms of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) or not. The study was carried out on 31 men from 26 to 53 years of age. All of them have been working in the Diyarbakir Radio Broadcasting Station. On the other hand, the control group was based on 30 unexposed voluntary and healthy men. ... The results of the present study showed that the incidence of NIHL in the exposed group is more and more than that of the unexposed (control) group. The incidence of NIHL was approximately found 70 % for exposed group and 6% for unexposed group. The difference of the incidence of NIHL between exposed and unexposed groups were statistically found significant for right and left ears at 4 kHz notch (p < 0.001)."

Milham, S. (1988). Increased mortality in amateur radio operators due to lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies. Am. J. Epidemiol., 127(1), 50-54.

"Ascertainment of Washington State and California amateur radio operators (67,829 persons) was done through the 1984 US Federal Communications Commission Amateur Radio Station and/or Operator License file. A total of 2,485 deaths were located for the period from January 1,1979 through December 31, 1984, in a population of amateur radio operators which accumulated 232,499 person-years at risk. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 71, but a statistically significant increased mortality was seen for cancers of the other lymphatic tissues (SMR = 162), a rubric which includes multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The all-leukemia standardized mortality ratio was slightly, but nonsignificantly, elevated (SMR = 124). However, mortality due to acute myeloid leukemia was significantly elevated (SMR = 176)."

Comment: Some of these amateur radio operators worked also in radio/communication occupation. The role of combined chemical and microwave exposure is interesting.

Oktay, M. F., Dasdag, S., Akdere, M., Cureoglu, S., Cebe, M., Yazicioglu, M., et al. (2004). Occupational safety: effects of workplace radiofrequencies on hearing function. Archives of Medical Research, 35(6), 517-521.

"The results of traditional audiometer indicated that RF promotes sensorineural hearing loss and affects cochlea parts related to 4000 Hz and 8000 Hz. These findings may have immediate implications and considerations for workplace safety in order to provide an occupationally safe environment to employees working in such settings."

Comment: Hearing related health problems after microwave exposure.

Panow, A. G. & Tjagin, N. W. (1966): Klassifizierung und Expertise zu Folgen der Wirkung eines SHFFeldes auf den Organismus eines Menschen. Wojenno-medizinskij shumal 9, S. 13.

Comment: 106 workers inspected in a microwave device factory.

Ouellet-Hellstrom, R., & Stewart, W. F. (1993). Miscarriages among Female Physical Therapists Who Report Using Radio- and Microwave-frequency Electromagnetic Radiation. Am. J. Epidemiol., 138(10), 775-786.

"Physical therapists are exposed to radio- and microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation by operating shortwave and microwave diathermy units ... Pregnancies of mothers reporting microwave use 6 months prior to the pregnancy or during the first trimester were more likely to result in miscarriage (odds ratio (OR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.02-1 59) The odds ratio increased with increasing level of exposure (x2 = 7 25, p < 0.005). The odds ratio in the highest exposure group (20 or more exposures/ month) was 1.59. The overall odds ratio was slightly lower after it was controlled for prior fetal loss (OR = 1.26, 95% Cl 1.00-1.59), but the exposure-response effect remained (x2 = 5.17, p < 0.01). The risk of miscarriage was not associated with reported use of shortwave diathermy equipment (OR = 1.07, 95% Cl 0.91-1.24). The odds ratio in the highest exposure group was 0.87."

Richter E, Berman T, Ben-Michael E, Laster R, Westin JB. (2000). Cancer in radar technicians exposed to radiofrequency/microwave radiation: sentinel episodes. Int J Occup Environ Health. 6(3):187-93.

"Index patients with melanoma of the eye, testicular cancer, nasopharyngioma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and breast cancer were in the 20-37-year age group. ...The findings suggest that young persons exposed to high levels of RF/MW radiation for long periods in settings where preventive measures were lax were at increased risk for cancer. Very short latency periods suggest high risks from high-level exposures."

Robinette, C.D., Silverman, C. & Jablon, S. (1980). Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar). American Journal of Epidemiology 112(1), 39-53.

"The effects of occupational experience with microwave radiation (radar) on the health of US enlisted Naval personnel were studied in cohorts of approximately 20,000 men with maximum opportunity for exposure (electronic equipment repair) and 20,000 with minimum potential for exposure (equipment operation) who served during the Korean War period. Potential exposure was assessed in terms of occupational duties, length of time in occupation and power of equipment at the time of exposure. Actual exposure to members of each cohort could not be established. Mortality by cause of death, hospitalization during military service, later hospitalization in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities, and VA disability compensation were the health indexes studied, largely through the use of automated record systems. No adverse effects were detected in these indexes that could be attributed to potential microwave radiation exposures during the period 1950-1954. Functional and behavioral changes and ill-defined conditions, such as have been reported as microwave effects, could not be investigated in this study but subgroups of the living study population can be identified for expanded follow-up."

Comment: Study of the health effects of radar on naval technical personnel who had served on ships during the Korean War. When naval occupations were grouped by exposure category, this showed a dose response increase in mortality in all diseases, especially in lymphoma and leukaemia, see Cherry (2002). Almost two times as much lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer in the high exposed compared to the low exposed group, see Goldsmith (1996).

Sadcikova. M. (1974). Clinical manifestations of reactions to microwave irradiation in various occupational groups, Biological Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation. WHO symposium, Polish Medical Publishers. pp. 261-267.

Schilling, C. J. (1997). Effects of acute exposure to ultrahigh radiofrequency radiation on three antenna engineers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 54(4), 281-284. Retrieved August 6, 2009.

"Three men were accidentally exposed to high levels of ultrahigh frequency radiofrequency radiation (785 MHz mean frequency) while working on a television mast. They experienced an immediate sensation of intense heating of the parts of the body in the electromagnetic field followed by a variety of symptoms and signs which included pain, headache, numbness, and parasthesiae, malaise, diarrhoea, and skin erythema. The most notable problem was that of acute then chronic headache involving the part of the head which was most exposed."

Schliephake, E. (1932). Arbeitsgebiete auf dem Kurzwellengebiet. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 32, 1235-1240.

"Der Gesamtorganismus wird schon im Strahlungsfeld von starken Kurzwellendendern durch die freie Hetzsche Welle deutlich beeinflusst. ...Starke mattigkeit am Tag, dafür in der Nacht unruhiger Schlaf, zunächst ein eigenartig ziehendes Gefühl in der Stirn und Kopfhaut, dann Kopfschmerzen, die sich immer mehr steigern, bis zur Unerträglichkeit. Dazu Neigung zu depressiver Stimmung und Aufgeregtheit. Auch hier hat nach unseren Erfahrungen die Wellenlänge einen deutlichen Einfluss."

Comment: Dr Scliephake described already in 1932 the symptoms of people working close to a short-wave radio station / mast. Symptoms were: first tiredness in day time and restless sleep in night time. Thereafter a feeling of "pull/pressure" on forehead and on top of head, developing to headaches, even intolerable ones. Eventually, depression and unnormal excitability/nervousness. Schliephake reported that the symptoms were dependent on the used wave length in the transmitter.

Sigler, A. T., Lilienfeld, A.M., Cohen, B.H. & Westlake. JE. ( 1965). Radiation exposure of parents of children with mongolism (Downs Syndrome). John Hopkins Hosp. Bull. 117: 374.

Comment: Higher incidence of Down's Syndrome in children whose fathers had prior occupational exposure to radar.

Szmigielski, S. (1996). Cancer morbidity in subjects occupationally exposed to high frequency (radiofrequency and microwave) electromagnetic radiation. Sci. Total Environ, 180(1), 9-17.

"The cancer morbidity rate for RF/MW-exposed personnel for all age groups (20-59 years) reached 119.1 per 100000 annually (57.6 in non-exposed) with an OER of 2.07, significant at P < 0.05. The difference between observed and expected values results from higher morbidity rates due to neoplasms of the alimentary tract (OER = 3.19-3.241, brain tumours (OER = 1.91) and malignancies of the haemopoietic system and lymphatic organs (OER = 6.31). Among malignancies of the haemopoietic/lymphatic systems, the largest differences in morbidity rates between exposed and non-exposed personnel were found for chronic myelocytic leukaemia (OER = 13.91, acute myeloblastic leukaemia (OER = 8.62) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (OER =5.82)."

Szmigielski, S., Bortkiewicz, A., Gadzicka, E., Zmyslony, M., & Kubacki, R. (1998). Alteration of diurnal rhythms of blood pressure and heart rate to workers exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Blood Pressure Monitoring, 3(6), 323-30.

"METHODS: In the study we used 61 healthy workers (aged 30-50 years) who had been exposed to radiofrequency EMF of 0.738-1.503 Mhz and 42 healthy workers at radio-line stations (aged 28-49 years), who had not been exposed to EMF occupationally. ...For workers exposed to radiofrequency EMF we noted a significant lowering of the amplitudes of rhythms of blood pressure and heart rate (P < 0.01) and a shift of the acrophase to an earlier time (1100-1200 h; P < 0.05). These changes were more pronounced among workers exposed to high intensities of radiofrequency EMF. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to radiofrequency EMF can result in changes of the diurnal rhythms of blood pressure and heart rate with lowering of their amplitudes and a shift of the acrophase."

Tikhonova, G.I. (2003). [Epidemiological risk assessment of pathology development in occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields] Radiats Biol Radioecol. Sep-Oct;43(5):559-64. [Article in Russian]

Health status of 250 workers was examined. High prevalence rate of cardiovascular diseases (ICD-X I00-I99) was found in the exposed groups. Odds ratio (OR) was 3.78 (95% CI 1.96-7.27) in group I and 2.13 (95% CI 1.13-4.03) in group II. High prevalence rate of cardiovascular diseases is explained by arterial hypertension (ICD-X I10-I15) (OR = 1.96 95% CI 1.04-3.70 in group I and OR = 1.80 95% CI 0.93-3.50 in group II) and ischemic heart disease (ICD-X I20-I25) (OR = 7.9 95% CI 3.48-18.06 in group I; OR = 3.0 95% CI 1.23-7.33--in group II). In the exposed groups cardiovascular diseases were developed in young age. OR was 7.04 (95% CI 1.64-30.19) in group I and 4.33 (95% CI 0.96-19.65) in group II in 30-39 age sub groups. Myocardium infarction was found in 2 out of 16 persons of this age in the group exposed to EMF. Comment: Airport workers, mostly air traffic controllers. Increased risk for heart problems.

Tonascia, J. A. & Tonascia, S. (1976). Hematology Study October 7, 1976. Report declassified under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIL).

Comment: Once again, related to the US embassy in Moscow.

Vangelova K, Deyanov C, Israel M. (2006). Cardiovascular risk in operators under radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. International Journal of Hygienic Environmental Health, 209,133-138.

Villaresi, G.; Y.A. Kopytenko; N. G. Pritsyne; M. T. Tyasto; E. A. Kopytenko; N. Iucci; P. M. Voiony (1994). The influence of geomagnetic storms and man-made magnetic field disturbances on the incidence of myocardial infarction in St. Petersburg (Russia). Physica Medica 19, S. 197-117

Wang, S.G. (1989). "5-HT contents change in peripheral blood of workers exposed to microwave and high frequency radiation". Chung Hua Yu Fang I Hsueh Tsa Chih 23(4): 207-210.

Comment: Workers who were more highly exposed to RF/MW had a dose-response increase in serotonin, and hence indicates a reduction in melatonin.

van Netten, C, Brands, R. H., Hoption Cann, S.A, Spinelli, J.J. & Sheps, S. B. (2003) Cancer cluster among police detachment personnel. Environment International. Jan;28(7):567-72.

"An apparent cancer cluster at a police detachment in a coastal British Columbia community was investigated. Police personnel suspected that the detachment building may have been a factor. ... After all 174 cases were contacted directly, or next of kin in case of death, a total of 16 cases of cancer or suspected cancers were reported. Of these 16, eight cases of cancer were confirmed through a cancer registry. Cancers included testicular, cervical, colon, skin (including melanoma), leukemias and lymphomas with an age range of diagnosis between 22 and 44 years. There was no evidence for an underlying event, factor or condition in the police building that could be attributed to the observed cancer cases. A possible association between these cancers and the use of police traffic radar is discussed." Comment: Radar exposure was just amoung many possible risk factors in this cancer cluster.

Wilén, J., Hörnsten, R., Sandström, M., Bjerle, P., Wiklund, U., Stensson, O., Lyskov, E. & Mild, K.H. (2004). Electromagnetic field exposure and health among RF plastic sealer operators. Bioelectromagnetics 25, 5-15.

Comment: Operators of plastic sealers had significantly lower 24-h heart rate than control subjects

Weyandt, T. B., Schrader, S. M., Turner, T. W., & Simon, S. D. (1996). Semen analysis of military personnel associated with military duty assignments. Reproductive Toxicology, 10(6), 521-528.

"It became apparent from extensive questionnaire data that many soldiers in the initial control population had potentially experienced microwave exposure as radar equipment operators. As a result, a third group of soldiers without potential for lead or microwave exposures, but with similar environmental conditions, was selected as a comparison population. ...Artillerymen who perceived a possible fertility concern demonstrated lower sperm counts/ejaculate (P = 0.067) and lower sperm/mL (P = 0.014) than the comparison group. The group of men with potential microwave exposures demonstrated lower sperm counts/mL (P = 0.009) and sperm/ejaculate (P = 0.027) than the comparison group."

Comment: Similar findings to Agarwall (2008), Fejes et al. (2005), who inspected mobile phone use and fertility.

Zaret, M. (1975). Blindness, deafness and vestibular dysfunction in a microwave worker. The Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Monthly, Vol. 54, No. 7, S. 49-52

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